Turkish Thoracic Journal
Original Article

Occupational Risk Factors and the Relationship of Smoking with Anxiety and Depression


Department of Chest Diseases, Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital, Ankara, Turkey


Department of Chest Diseases, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey


Department of Chest Deseases, Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey


Division of Occupational Medicine, Department of Chest Diseases, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Turk Thorac J 2018; 19: 77-83
DOI: 10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2017.17055
Read: 783 Downloads: 192 Published: 18 July 2019



OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation of smoking with anxiety and depression in workers who were exposed to occupational risk factors. For this purpose, working time, smoking status, nicotine dependence, and respiratory functions of the workers who were exposed to physical and/or chemical harmful substances were evaluated and the presence of anxiety/depression was investigated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male workers who were exposed to occupational risk factors such as solvents, heavy metals, and dust and visited the outpatient clinic for occupational diseases within a one-year period were included. Pulmonary Function Test and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence were performed. Anxiety and depression statuses of the workers were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.


RESULTS: The mean age of 665 male workers was 45 y (range, 38-48 y), and they were most commonly exposed to solvents (45.9%), followed by heavy metal fume/dust (20.9%). Of the workers, 252 (37.9%) had anxiety, 294 (44.2%) had depression, and 171 (25.7%) had both. More than half of the workers in each occupation/exposure group were smokers. Respiratory complaints were present in 34% of the workers. According to the regression analysis, the presence of respiratory system complaints was found to be a significant risk factor for anxiety, depression, and anxiety plus depression.


CONCLUSION: In conclusion, smoking and anxiety/depression were found to be the conditions affecting more than half of the workers with occupational exposure.


Cite this article as: Ergün D, Ergün R, Ergan B, Kar Kurt Ö. Occupational Risk Factors and the Relationship of Smoking with Anxiety and Depression. Turk Thorac J 2018: 19; 77-83.

EISSN 2149-2530